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Update of the National Emergency Plan for Campi Flegrei
This dossier is dedicated to the updating of the National Emergency Plan for the Phlegraean Fields, for which since 2012 the Civil Protection Department, on the basis of periodic meetings with the Great Risks Commission, renews the "yellow" alert level which provides for the permanence of the "warning" operational phase.
After a long process of study and analysis, a new red zone has been identified, i.e. the area for which the evacuation is the only preventive measure of the population, and the new yellow zone, that is the area outside the red zone exposed to the significant fallout of volcanic ash and pyroclastic materials. At the same time, twinnings were also redefined with the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces that will host the approximately 500,000 people who will have to be evacuated from the red zone. Both areas were formalized on 19 August 2016, the date of publication in the Official Gazette of the Prime Ministerial Decree containing the "Provisions for the update of the emergency planning for the volcanic risk of the Campi Flegrei". The evacuation plan of the inhabitants of the red zone is being prepared by the Campania Region, with the support of ACaMIR - Agency Campana Mobilità Infrastrutture e Reti, in connection with the municipalities concerned. At present, they have been identified by the Campania Region, as part of the work table activities coordinated by the Department of Civil Protection and composed of all the entities and companies with competence in the management of mobility of national importance, the "meeting areas" and the general strategy for the transfer of the population to the twinned Regions and Autonomous Provinces was defined. These parts of the Plan have been made official with a Deliberation of the Campania Region council on 4 September 2018.
The red Zzne and the yellow zone have been identified by the Civil Protection Department, in agreement with the Campania Region, on the basis of the information provided by the scientific community. The starting point for updating these areas was the final report drawn up by the "Working Group responsible for defining the reference scenario for the Emergency Plan for Volcanic Risk Camps in Campi Flegrei", established in 2009. This document was subjected to the evaluation of the Major Risks Commission - Volcanic Risk Sector which discussed it in several sessions to provide its own guidance to the Department.
The new red zone includes the area exposed to the invasion of pyroclastic flows, and includes the municipalities of Pozzuoli, Bacoli, Monte di Procida and Quarto and some of the municipalities of Giugliano in Campania, Marano di Napoli and some municipalities in Naples: the municipalities 9 (Soccavo and Pianura districts); 10 (neighborhoods Bagnoli and Fuorigrotta) and some portions of the municipalities 1 (neighborhoods of San Ferdinando, Posillipo and Chiaia), 5 (Areas of Arenella and Vomero) and 8 (Chiaiano district).
In order to provide assistance to the population of these municipalities that should be evacuated in the event of an eruption, the Decree of the Prime Minister defines the twinning scheme with the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces. The measure also calls on the members and structures of the National Service of Civil Protection to elaborate or update their respective emergency plans according to the indications of 2 February 2015 that the Head of the Civil Protection Department, in agreement with the Campania Region and heard the Joint Conference, issued for Vesuvius, with the exception of due adaptation to the territory.
In the yellow zone fall the Municipalities of Villaricca, Calvizzano, Marano di Napoli, Mugnano di Napoli, Melito di Napoli and Casavatore and 24 districts of the Municipality of Naples. The definition of this area was based on recent studies and simulations of the ground distribution of volcanic ash and took into account the historical statistics of the wind at high altitude. In particular, on the basis of the probability maps obtained, the areas where the ash accumulation is able to cause the collapse of roofs with medium-low resistance have been identified.
The fallout of volcanic ash can produce, at the local level, both the effects on human health and the significant impact on daily activities in rural areas and in population centers. To counter these effects, municipalities outside the yellow zone will also have to update their emergency schedules, based on the Operative Guidelines provided by the Department.
This dossier will be constantly modified to describe all the phases that will lead to the updating of the National Emergency Plan for the Campi Flegrei. The first page traces the path that led to the revision of the 2001 Plan; the second one explains how the reference event and the alert levels for the update of the emergency planning have been identified; the third describes the steps that led to the redefinition of the red zone; the fourth details the new twinning scheme between Municipalities in the red zone and the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces and in brief explains the evacuation and transfer plan of the population from the red zone; the fifth is dedicated to the new yellow zone.
Latest update: 11 September 2018
2001 – Basic elements for the National Emergency Plan
2002/2003 - Reconstitution of the Commission
2005 - Evacuation Plan
2009 - Establishment of the working group responsible for defining the reference scenario
2012 - Passage from the “base” level alert to the “attention” level alert
2012/2013 - Training activities in the Campi Flegrei area
2013 – Final Report of the Working Group
2014 – Redefinition of the red zone
2014 – Training activities for schools in the Vesuvius and Flegrei areas
2015 - Definition of yellow zone
2016 – Provisions for updating emergency plans
2016/2017 – Escape and trasfer plan of population from the red zone
2017/2018 – Intervention model to activate in case of yellow, orange, red alert
The National Emergency Plan for the Campi Flegrei was first drawn up in 1984, following the bradyseism crisis that affected the area in the early 1980s.
2001 – Basic elements for the National Emergency Plan.
In 1996 a technical and scientific commission was set up to provide for a first update of the emergency plan. In 2001, this Commission, based on a study submitted by a group of researchers from the Vesuvius Observatory in 1998, produced a document containing the basic elements for the national emergency planning of the Campi Flegrei area. This document provides the basis for emergency planning for the area most likely to be invaded from pyroclastic flows. This area, called "red zone", is the one where the only preventive measure is the evacuation of the population. In the red area, the municipalities of Bacoli and Monte di Procida, part of the municipality of Pozzuoli, fall into the whole of the districts of Bagnoli-Fuorigrotta, Soccavo-Pianura and part of the districts of Vomero-Arenella, Posillipo, Chiaia (municipality of Naples). Four levels of alert (base, attention, pre-alarm, alarm) have been identified in the document, which, based on the analysis and evaluation of the monitored parameters, give information on the possible evolution of the volcano activity. Taken as a reference to the operational strategy identified in Vesuvius emergency planning, the document identified twinning with autonomous regions and provinces and the ways of evacuating the population.
2002-2003 - Reconstitution of the Commission.
In 2002, the then Minister of Interior delegated to the Civil Protection Coordination established a new National Commission with the aim of updating the planning for Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei. The members of the Commission were appointed in 2003 by decree of the Head of Civil Protection Department.
2005 - Evacuation Plan.
As part of the work carried out by the National Commission and based on the document produced in 2001, the Department of Hydraulics, Transport and Roads at La Sapienza University in Rome, appointed by the Civil Protection Department, drafted the "Evacuation Plan" for the Campi Flegrei, where the main evacuation paths are defined by the municipalities in the red zone in case of eruption.
2009 - Establishment of the working group responsible for defining the reference scenario.
In 2009, the Department set up a Working Group for redefining the eruptive scenario and alert levels with the aim of updating emergency planning at the Campi Flegrei. In this group, experts with specific skills identified in the Vocational Risk Centers and Universities were involved. In January 2013, the Working Group handed the final report to the Civil Protection Department.
2012 - Passage from the “base” level alert to the “attention” level alert.
In the last months of 2012, the monitoring system of the Campi Flegrei showed significant increases in seismicity, ground deformations and variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the fumaroles of the solfatara nd the hydrothermal area of Pisciarelli. At the request of the Civil Protection Department and on the basis of the data and documents submitted by the ENGV researchers, the Great Risk Commission - Volcanic Risk Sector considered it appropriate to raise the level of alert for the Campi Flegrei, ranging from the "base" level, which corresponds to the ordinary activity of the volcano, to the level of "attention". Based on these assessments, the Department decided, in agreement with the Campania Region, to move to the "phase of attention", which has led to the strengthening of the volcano monitoring system and the activation of a constant information link. To this end, new procedures have been developed for the transfer and sharing of data between the scientific community and the other components and structures of the National Civil Protection Service.
2012/2013 - Training activities in the Campi Flegrei area.
At the end of 2012, the Civil Protection Department, the Campania Region and the Vesuvius Observatory started volunteering for Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei, training courses for municipalities, volunteer organizations and other structures in the areas of Flegrei and Vesuvius. Staff from the Campania Region, the Prefecture and the Province of Naples also took part to the courses. The course had two days of theoretical lesson in the classroom and two days dedicated to the visit of the Campi Flegrei, Vesuvius and the Vesuvian Observatory. In particular, all the municipalities in the Campi Flegrei joined the initiative: Bacoli, Giugliano in Campania, Marano, Pozzuoli, Quarto, Monte di Procida and Naples. Thirty volunteer organizations in the Flegrei and Vesuvius areas that took part in the fourth training cycle.
2013 – Final Report of the Working Group.
In January 2013, the Civil Protection Department received the Final Report prepared by the Working Group and started an analysis and analysis phase to identify the useful elements of the planning update. Given the complexity of the issues dealt with, the amount of information reported and the considerations made by the experts, the Report was submitted to the assessment of the National High Risk Commission - Volcanic Risk Sector. At a first meeting on May 31, 2013, the Department asked the Commission some questions to gather useful information to outline the new red zone of the Campi Flegrei. Subsequently, on 12 July 2013, the Commission was asked to give an opinion on the evolution and timing of a possible eruption to the Campi Flegrei. In this regard, the Commission has highlighted the difficulty of defining precisely the times of development of a possible crisis, underlining how scientific assessments of the possible existence of eruptive phenomena can only be formulated on a probabilistic basis. The Commission itself also stressed the difficulty of defining a priori the "minimum time" between the time of probabilistic evaluation and the actual occurrence of eruptive phenomena. Finally, it clarified that a volcanic crisis would still be characterized by a phase of longer-lasting precursor phenomena, which could not be defined a priori and could last even for years (orange alert level), and a pre-eruptive short-term phase which could instead be limited to a few days and even hours (red level).
2014 – Redefinition of the red zone.
In the first part of the year the Civil Protection Department and the Campania Region met several times to discuss the redefinition of the red zone of the Campi Flegrei. Subsequently, a process of sharing the area with the mayors of the Flegrei municipalities began, which led to its formalization with a resolution of the Regional Council published on December 29, 2014 on the Official Bulletin of the Campania Region.
2014 – Training activities for schools in the Vesuvius and Flegrei areas.
At the end of the year, the Civil Protection Department and the Ingv-National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology started with the collaboration of the Regional School Office and the Campania Region the Edurisk project in elementary and lower high schools of the Vesuvius and Flegrei red zones. These are training courses for teachers providing specific educational support tools. Among the topics covered: hazard and assessment of volcanic and seismic risk; psychology and behavior in contexts of volcanic risk; risk education. Part of the education was dedicated to the presentation of the National Civil Protection Service and the Emergency Plan for Volcanic Risk.
2015 – Definition of the yellow zone.
On 3 April the Campania Region approved the yellow zone for the Flegrei Camps. This area, outside the red zone, is exposed to a significant relapse of volcanic ash, the accumulation of which could cause the collapse of the roofs. The resolution welcomes the delimitation proposed by the Civil Protection Department, and shared with the Campania Region, on the basis of the data provided by the scientific community. With the same resolution, the municipalities provided the operational guidelines for planning any structural interventions and verifying the condition of the existing structures.
2016 – Provisions for updating emergency plans.
As in Vesuvius, on August 19, 2016, the decree containing the "Provisions for the updating of the emergency plan for the volcanic risk of the Campi Flegrei", signed by the President of the Council of Ministers on 26 June 2016, was published on the Official Gazette. The measure officialises of the new red zone – with the definition of the related twinning scheme - and the yellow zone. Both areas had already been approved by the Council of the Campania Region. Finally, in relation to the elaboration and updating of the emergency planning of the red zone, the decree indicates to the members and structures of the National Service to follow the instructions issued for Vesuvius on February 2, 2015, without due adaptation to the territory . The indications for the yellow zone will be provided by the Head of Civil Protection Department with the Campania Region and after hearing the Joint Conference.
2016/2017 – Escape and trasfer plan of population from the red zone.
The Campania Region is developing - with the support of ACaMIR - Campana Mobility Infrastructures and Networks Agency and in close connection with the Department of Civil Protection and with the managers of the infrastructure networks - a Plan to manage the removal of people to be evacuated as a precautionary measure from the municipalities of the red zone. In summary, the Plan provides for the identification of "gates" for the exit from the red zone and the assisted transport of the population in "meeting areas", identified along the main routes of departure. The general strategy of the phase of transfer of the evacuated population - which will take place through coach, train or ships - from the "meeting areas" to the "points of first reception", set up in the Regions and autonomous twinned Provinces, has also been planned. To guarantee the homogeneity of the red zone population transfer plans in the different regions and autonomous autonomous provinces, a work table was set up by the Department, which was attended by the bodies and companies with competence in the management of mobility of national importance. The meeting areas, together with the transfer procedures, have been formalized with the Campania Region Resolution no. 547 of 4 September 2018.
2017/2018 – Intervention model to activate in case of yellow, orange, red alert.
In conjunction with the Campania Region, the Civil Protection Department has developed a model of intervention to be activated in case of transition to the operational phases of pre-alarm and alarm. The model defines, in particular, the organization of the National Civil Protection Service for the execution of the operational activities necessary to manage any emergencies (from the activation of the Operational Committee, to the structuring of the Di.Coma.C and the operational and coordination on the territory). This document has already been shared with the components and operational structures of civil protection and, soon, will be formalized in a specific document that will define the details.
Latest update: 11 September 2018
The working group working at scenarios and levels of alert in case of resumption of the eruptive activity in the volcanic area of Flegrei has drafted and delivered a report that provides the possible pre-eruptive and eruptive scenarios at Campi Flegrei and the related evaluations of hazard of the various phenomena, making a synthesis of the scientific knowledge available at the time of its drafting.
Given the complexity of the Flegrei volcanic system and the absence of recent eruptions (the last eruption of Monte Nuovo dates back to 1538), the document highlighted, in particular, the uncertainty of eruption prediction and expectation of its type. It then adds to the uncertainty related to the location of the vent. Already from the visual analysis of the Flegrei caldera the complexity of the volcanic system can be seen, characterized by the presence of numerous craters. Also, the resumption of the eruptive activity occurring from more mouths simultaneously cannot be ruled out.
The landmark event. For the definition of the reference scale of the event, we carried out a probabilistic study on the occurrence of eruptions over the last 5000 years of activity of Campi Flegrei, a period considered significant because following the last structural change of the caldera. For each scale eruption the following levels of probability of occurrence have been identified: effusive - 11.9% small Explosive - 59.6% medium Explosive - 23.8% Explosive large - 4.0% very large Explosive - 0.7%
This statistical analysis shows that, in case of reactivation, there is an approximate 95% chance that the eruption will be of a scale smaller or equal to the average. The average eruption corresponds, therefore, to a reasonable choice of "acceptable risk", considering that the probability that this event is exceeded by an eruption of greater size (large or very large) is less than 5%.
The update of the national emergency planning, on the basis of what is produced by the Working Group and the Major Risks Commission, therefore considers an explosive eruption of medium size as a reference event. The risk areas defined for this type of eruption also cover those envisaged for in the case of smaller-scale events.
However, it is emphasized that at the present state of knowledge, should phenomena linked to a probable reactivation occur, it would not be possible to determine from the analysis of the precursors of which type the possible eruption will be.
Eruption scenarios expected. The eruptive scenario defines the set of dangerous phenomena and their impact area. In the event of resumption of the eruptive activity, the expected phenomena may be of different intensity and impact depending on the scale and type of event and for an eruption of scale equal to or lower than the average include: the formation of a eruptive column a few kilometers high; the fall of volcanic bombs and blocks immediately around the vent and smaller particles (ash and lapilli) also to several tens of kilometers away; the formation of pyroclastic flows that would flow for some kilometers.
In addition, in the Campi Flegrei area special explosive phenomena linked to the external water involvement, known as phreatic explosions may occur, in areas with intense hydrothermal activity (Solfatara /Pisciarelli area), or where there are currently significant availability of surface water, such as residual wetlands lacustrine environments (Agnano), intra-crater lakes (Averno) and sea (Gulf of Pozzuoli).
The hazard areas. On the basis of the scale eruptive reference event and scenarios connected, the three zones of the Plan (red, yellow and blue) are defined, for which different operating measures are envisaged. The red zone comprises the area exposed to the danger of invasion of pyroclastic flows that for their high temperatures and their speed represent the most dangerous phenomenon for human lives; the yellow zone identifies areas exposed to relapse of lava and volcanic ash, and the blue zone will take into account the exposed areas to flooding phenomena and invasion by rapid mudflows (lahars).
The alert levels. The document produced by the Working Group defines also alert levels for the Campi Flegrei, which mark the time before a possible resumption of the eruptive activity. As in the 2001 emergency planning, the alert levels are four: a basic level (green), a level of attention (yellow), a pre-alarm level (orange) and an alarm level (red). The transition from one to the next alert level is established on the basis of variations of the parameters routinely monitored by the monitoring system managed by the Vesuvius observatory of Ingv.
Based on the monitoring data registered so far and the opinions expressed by the Major Risks Commission in December 2012, then repeated in the following years, the Department has decided to maintain the "yellow" level alert for the Campi Flegrei area. Unlike the "green" level alert, which corresponds to the ordinary activity of the volcano, this level is in fact determined by the variation of some of the monitored parameters.
Latest update: 31 August 2018
The "red zone" is the area where preventive evacuation is identified as the only measure to safeguard the population. The new red zone for the Campi Flegrei includes, as already identified in the 2001 Emergency Plan, the territories potentially exposed to the invasion of pyroclastic flows.
Studies and choices behind the redefinition of the red zone. The redevelopment of the red zone of Campi Flegrei started in January 2013, with the delivery of the document of the National Commission Working Group, which was commissioned in 2009 to redefine the eruptive scenario and alert levels. The Department then submitted this document to the Great Risk-Sector Volcanic Risk Commission which provided its own assessments and recommendations on how to revise the red zone.
Unlike Vesuvius, the Commission has suggested adopting a probabilistic approach for the Campi Flegrei with respect to the various eruptive scales expected and the position of the eruptive mouth.
The Commission itself, in the analysis carried out by the Working Group, identified in the study of Orsi et al. of 2004 the reference for the Civil Protection Department from which to obtain information on the perimeter of the new red zone based on the distribution of deposits left by pyroclastic flows. This is the work that most recently has collected and systematized all available knowledge about deposits of pyroclastic flows after the eruption of the Tufo Giallo Napoletano, which occurred about 15,000 years ago. This study coincides with the area most likely to invade the pyroclastic flows with the Flegrei caldera, with the exception of a northeastern boundary, towards the territories of the municipality of Marano and the Chiaiano district of Naples. Furthermore, due to the uncertainty surrounding the location of the eruptive mouth, the Major Risks Commission suggested extending the area to greater danger also to the Naples area east of the caldera, particularly at the hills of Posillipo, Vomero-Arenella, Area northwest to Quarto and Mount Procida. The Department, in agreement with the Campania Region, also thought to include in the red area also the flat area of the Municipio I of Naples at the foot of the hill of Posillipo, up to the orographic boundary of Mount Echia, essentially corresponding to the Chiaia district.
Unlike Vesuvius, the updating of the red zone for the Campi Flegrei does not cover the definition of a red zone 2, subject to a high risk of collapse of building shells for the accumulation of pyroclastic deposits (volcanic ash and lapilli). In the case of the Flegrei area, the maps show that only the historic center of Naples (outside the red zone) would be in this condition. For this area, specific safeguard measures will be identified for the population in case of upcoming or ongoing eruption.
List of municipalities in the red zone. The new area, in which some 500,000 people live, includes the municipalities of Pozzuoli, Bacoli, Monte di Procida and Quarto and some of the municipalities of Giugliano in Campania, Marano di Napoli and some of the municipalities of Naples: all municipalities 9 (Soccavo and Pianura districts); 10 (neighborhoods Bagnoli and Fuorigrotta) and some portions of the municipalities 1 (neighborhoods of San Ferdinando, Posillipo and Chiaia). 5 (Areas of Arenella and Vomero) and 8 (Chiaiano district).
On the basis of the new perimeter of the red zone, the Campania Region has undertaken a shared and deepened path with the municipalities concerned, whose aim was to identify further physical, infrastructural and urban elements on the territory to define the boundaries in more detail Of the area to be evacuated. Only the Municipalities of Naples and Marano have proposed variations on the red zone limit within their territory; All the others have taken note of the proposal of redrafting formulated by the Department and shared with the Campania Region. On December 29, 2014, the Regional Council Resolution on the Official Gazette of the Campania Region published the definitive delimitation of the red zone, which was subsequently formalized in the "Provisions for the Upgrading of Emergency Planning for the Volcanic Risk of the Campi Flegrei" which the President of the Council of Ministers signed on 24 June 2016, then published in Official Gazette no. 193 of 19 August 2016.
Planning of operational structures and components of the National Service. The "Provisions for the update of the emergency planning for the volcanic risk of the Campi Flegrei" also establish that for the elaboration and updating of the emergency planning of the components and operational structures of the National Civil Protection Service are valid, with the exception of the due adaptations relative to the territory, the indications that the Head of the Civil Protection Department issued, in agreement with the Campania Region and having heard the Unified Conference, for Vesuvius, on 2 February 2015 (GU n.75 of 31 March 2015).
Specifically, the indications are divided into six different sections. After a part describing the general strategy that all the National Service will have to follow in the operational phases corresponding to the alert, pre-alarm and alarm alert levels, the document contains the addresses for internal planning, sector and communication. In particular:
- internal planning includes procedures and actions for the protection of human and instrumental resources that each component or operating structure has in the red zone;
- sector planning must guarantee the response of the components and operating structures to the various operational phases and the integration and harmonization of the actions of the various administrations and bodies for the achievement of the general objectives;
- the communication plans program the information and communication activities of the components and operating structures in the various phases.
The document also defines the elements necessary for the Campania Region, the local authorities involved and the Regions and Autonomous Provinces to draw up plans for removal from the red zone and transfer and reception of the population. Specific indications are also given to the Campania Region and local authorities to update their emergency planning. One chapter is dedicated to the general planning and coordination activities of the Department of Civil Protection, while the last part of the document provides elements aimed at ensuring the administrative continuity of local authorities.
Latest update: 31 August 2018
Twinning scheme. To ensure assistance to the people of the red zone to be evacuated well in advance, the "Provisions for updating the emergency planning for the volcanic risk of the Campi Flegrei" also define the twinning scheme between the municipalities in the red zone and the Regions and Provinces Autonomous.
The twinning scheme envisages that the population of Pozzuoli will be assisted in Lombardy; of Bacoli in Umbria and Marche; of Monte di Procida in Abruzzo and Molise; of Quarto in Tuscany; and in the municipality of Naples, that the inhabitants of the districts of San Ferdinando (pro parte) and Chiaia are transferred to Sicily, those of the Posillipo neighborhood are assisted in Sardinia, those of the Arenella neighborhood (pro parte) in Veneto, those of the district of Vomero (pro parte) in Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta, those in the Chiaiano district (pro parte) in Friuli Venezia Giulia, those in the Soccavo district in Emilia Romagna, those in the Pianura in Puglia district, those in the Bagnoli district in Basilicata and Calabria, those of the Fuorigrotta district in Lazio and finally, part of the Municipality of Marano di Napoli is assisted in Liguria and part of the population of the municipality of Giugliano in Campania is transferred to the autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano.
In order to make twinning operations operative, the Regions and the Autonomous Provinces must sign Memoranda of Understanding with the Campania Region and the municipalities in the red zone, in agreement with the Department.
Evacuation plan for the population from the red zone. Per regolare lo spostamento delle persone da evacuare è in via di elaborazione un Piano per l’allontanamento della popolazione. Specifiche parti di questo Piano sono già state ufficializzate con Delibera della Regione Campania n.547 del 4 settembre 2018.
To regulate the displacement of the people to be evacuated, a Plan is currently being drawn up. Specific parts of such Plan have already been made official through the Deliberation of Campania Region no. 547 of 4 September 2018. The Plan has the objective of carrying out the evacuation in 72 hours, with a contemporary departure and divided into phases from all the Municipalities of the red zone, in the precautionary hypothesis that the removal, both spontaneous and assisted, of all the inhabitants of the red zone occur simultaneously (and that there have therefore been no previous spontaneous departures). In particular, the assisted movement of people from the "waiting areas", defined in the Civil Protection Plan of each Municipality, to the "meeting areas", identified just outside the red zone, will take place with coaches made available by the Campania Region while the their transfer to the "points of first reception" in the Regions and autonomous twinned provinces can take place in different ways (coaches, trains or ships) depending on the destinations, to limit the load on the mobility infrastructure and the inconvenience to the population. People can also choose to move independently, with their own means of transport. In this case, they will be able to do so by following the road exits from the red zone established in the removal plan and then proceed directly to the "First Reception Points" identified in the Regions and Autonomous Twin Regions. In both cases, however, the exit from the red zone will have to take place through the "gates" identified in the Plan.
The Plan for the removal of the population of the red zone is being prepared by the Campania Region, with the support of ACaMIR - Campana Mobility Infrastructures and Networks Agency, in connection with the municipalities concerned. At present the Campania Region has identified, within the activities of the Working Table coordinated by the Department of Civil Protection and composed of all the entities and companies with competence in the management of mobility of national importance, the "meeting areas" and is the general strategy for the transfer of the population to the Regions and Autonomous Twin Provinces was defined.
In order to guarantee the correct management of the road network and railway traffic, planning activities are underway by Viabilità Italia, in conjunction with the Operational Roads Committees (Cov) of the various Prefectures, and, for the railway part, network operators and companies operating on long-distance lines. The activities necessary for the activation of the naval transport system will also be established.
Twinned regions and autonomous provinces will have to draw up specific plans for the transfer of the population removed from the Red Zone and for the reception on their territory.
Model of intervention of the National Civil Protection Service. In conjunction with the Campania Region, the Civil Protection Department has developed a model of intervention to be implemented in the event of a switch to the pre-alarm and alarm operational phases).
The model in particular defines the organization of the National Civil Protection Service in carrying out the operational activities necessary to manage any emergencies (from the activation of the operational Committee, to the structuring of Di.Coma.C and the operational and coordination centers in the area. ). This document has already been shared with the components and operational structures of civil protection and, soon, will be formalized in a specific document that will define the details.
Latest update: 11 September 2018
The "yellow zone" is the area outside the red zone, which in the case of the erosion of the Campi Flegrei is exposed to significant relapse of volcanic ash. In fact, the reference event for the planning update, i.e. a medium size eruption, involves the formation of an eruptive column of 12 km. Upon reaching this height, the eruptive column is normally bent by the wind and the solid material falls to the ground, in the falling area, resulting in continuous rain ash and lapilli.
Within a few hours, depending on the height of the eruptive column, the direction and wind speed at the time of the eruption, the continuous emission of this material can lead to considerable accumulation of volcanic ash up to a considerable distance from the volcano.
The presence of significant amounts of soil-leaching ash also exposes the area to the possibility of deposition of rain deposits with consequent hydraulic and hydrogeological problems. Thicknesses smaller but important for planning purposes may also affect a larger area outside the yellow zone.
Studies and documents underlying the definition of the yellow zone. As for the red zone update, the yellow zone proposal comes from the final report delivered to the Civil Protection Department in December 2012 by the Working Group responsible for defining the reference scenario.
As with Vesuvius, the National Geophysical and Volcanology Institute - Ingv has been asked to provide the Department with the most up-to-date statistical studies on volcanic ash dispersion released in case of eruption at the Campi Flegrei, taking into account the different wind models at Mid-high quotas, available today. Based on the data provided by ENGV, the Plinius Study Center of the University of Naples has developed the risk index from collapsing volcanic ash accumulation on building roofs.
Criteria for defining the yellow zone. Based on the reference event, the Ingv study examined the distribution of volcanic ash on the ground, also depending on the wind. In particular, probability maps have been produced highlighting areas where 5-30 cm (50-300 kg / m2) ash deposits can be found, which can cause low-to-low roof collapse.
In particular, in accordance with the choices made for Vesuvius, the Civil Protection Department, in agreement with the Campania Region, outlined the yellow zone proposal on the basis of the probability curve of 5% relative to a load of equal volcanic ash At 300 kg/m2 or 30 cm in thickness.
List of municipalities in the yellow area. In the new yellow zone there are 6 municipalities and 24 districts of the city of Naples. The municipalities are: Villaricca, Calvizzano, Marano di Napoli, Mugnano di Napoli, Melito di Napoli, Casavatore. The districts of the city of Naples are Arenella, Bar, Chiaia, Chiaiano, Mercato, Miano, Montecalvario, Pendino, Piscinola, Poggioreale, Porto, San Carlo at Arena, San Ferdinando, San Giovanni a Teduccio, San Giuseppe, San Lorenzo , San Pietro in Patierno, Scampia, Secondigliano, Star, Vicaria, Vomero, Industrial Zone.
For these municipalities, in addition to planning national and regional level intervention, provision should be made in municipal plans for specific measures, as temporary resettlement of the population residing in buildings rendered vulnerable or difficult to access from the accumulation of ashes. The operational strategies defined in the emergency plans will have to be diversified and "dynamic", since the area exposed to the ashes will not be detectable a priori, but it will be only at the current event, depending on the direction of the winds and the entity event.
The yellow zone, already identified with a resolution of the Campania Region, has been officially recognized in the "Provisions for the Emergency Planning Update for the Volcanic Risk of the Fields of Flegrei", which the President of the Council of Ministers signed on June 24, Published in the Official Gazette no. 193 of 19 August 2016.
Planning of operating structures and components of the National Service. Even for the yellow zone, the Head of Civil Protection Department will, in agreement with the Campania Region and after hearing the Unified Conference, provide the various national components and structures of the National Service with instructions for updating their respective emergency schedules. Next, each of the Components and Operating Structures addressed by the Guidelines will prepare, update and adapt their respective Emergency Plans.
Municipalities outside the yellow zone. Even areas outside the yellow zone may be affected by significant impact of ashes that can have significant consequences on essential services and networks, such as sewer overflow, pollution of aquifers, traffic difficulties, interruption of electrical and communication lines. Based on the 5% probability curves for volcanic ash loads of 200, 100 and 50 kg/m2, these additional areas have been identified, where ashes of 20, 10 and 5 cm are possible.
In particular, the "Provisions for the updating of emergency planning for the volcanic risk of the Campi Flegrei" also contain the list of Naples Municipalities and Districts which with a probability of 5% or more will have, in the event of an eruption Volcanic, a volcanic ash load of between 30cm and 20cm, between 20cm and 10cm and between 10cm and 5cm.
In addition, these municipalities will have to include specific indications in their plans to deal with the consequences of accumulation of ashes, with particular reference to the measures necessary to restore the functionality of all essential services.
Latest update: 31 August 2018
Latest update: 6 September 2016